Black liquor evaporators upgrade — How many effects?, TAPPI Journal April 2023
ABSTRACT: Black liquor evaporation is generally the most energy intensive unit operation in a pulp and paper manufacturing facility. The black liquor evaporators can represent a third or more of the total mill steam usage, followed by the paper machine and digester. When considering an evaporator rebuild or a new system, the key design question is how many effects to include in the system. The number of effects is the main design feature that deter-mines the economy of the system and the steam usage for a given evaporation capacity. A higher number of effects increases steam economy and reduces energy cost to a point, but additional effects also have higher initial capital cost and increased power costs. This research paper uses life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) as a method to determine the optimum number of evaporator effects for a new evaporator system. The same basic principles and method can also apply to existing evaporator rebuild projects.
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