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Recently, a new method based on FT-Raman spectroscopy was proposed to determine cellulose I crystallinity. It was reported that in the Raman spectrum of cellulosic materials the peak intensity ratio of 380 and 1,096 cm-1 bands can be used to determine cellulose crystallinity. In that study, Raman crystallinities of the calibration set Whatman CC31 samples were found to be greatly correlated with the WAXS data (Segal-WAXS-21°; coefficient of determination R2 = 0.98). Average standard error calculated from replicate Raman acquisitions indicated that the Raman crystallinity model was highly reliable. In the present investigation, the Raman and WAXS methods were applied to nanocrystalline and nanofibrillated celluloses. Calculated crystallinities by the two methods were found to be significantly different.
The best-selling text to introduce the entire technology of pulp and paper manufacture.
Together, the two books form a complete set, and provide an in-depth study of the market for cellulose nanomaterials with critical insights for producers, processors, and end users.
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