Discrete Element Method to Model Cracking for Two Layer Systems, 2018 Advanced Coating Symposium
Cracking at the fold is a serious issue for many grades of coated paper and coated board. Some recent work has suggested methods to minimize this problem by using two or more coating layers of different properties [Salminen et al. (2008a and 2008b)]. A discrete element method (DEM) has been used to model deformation events for single layer coating systems such as in-plain and out-of-plain tension, three-point bending, and a novel moving force picking simulation, but nothing has been reported related to multiple coating layers.
In this paper, a DEM model has been expanded to predict the three-point bending response of a two-layer system. The main factors being evaluated include the use of different binder systems in each layer and the ratio of the bottom and top layer weights. As in the past, the properties of the binder and the binder concentration are input parameters. The model can predict crack formation that is a function of these two sets of factors. In addition, the model can predict the flexural modulus, the maximum flexural stress, and the strain-at-failure. The predictions are qualitatively compared to experimental results reported in the literature.
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