Cationic emulsions of maleic anhydride derivatives of oleic and abietic acid for hydrophobic sizing of paper, TAPPI Journal 2020

Application: In this work, the authors show a new chemical approach to preparing sizing agents from components of wood resin. Progress has been achieved in development of hydrophobic treatments for paper. 

TAPPI conference proceedings and presentations, technical papers, and publication articles provide technical and management data and solutions on topics covering the Pulp, Paper, Tissue, Corrugated Packaging, Flexible Packaging, Nanotechnology and Converting Industries.

Simply select the quantity, add to your cart and your conference paper, presentation or article will be available for immediate download.

Author: Ahsen Ezel Bildik Dal, Martin A. Hubbe, and Lokendra Pal
Cationic emulsions of maleic anhydride derivatives of oleic
ABSTRACT: Ordinary rosin sizing agents are mixtures of resin acids that include abietic acid and related compounds obtained from softwoods such as pine. Fatty acids, which are another byproduct of the kraft pulping of soft-wood species, also may have hydrophobic effects, but their use as sizing agents has seldom been considered. In the current study, abietic acid and oleic acid, in the absence of other components, were first modified by reaction with maleic acid anhydride. Then, the maleated derivatives (maleated oleic acid [MOA] and maleated abietic acid [MAA]), which were emulsified with cationic starch at the 1:1 and 3:2 ratio, respectively, were added to fiber furnish containing aluminum sulfate (papermaker’s alum). The prepared sheets were dried with a rotating drum on one side at 100°C at low pressure to cure the sizing agents. The chemical, optical strength, and absorption properties were measured. The presence of the sizing material was confirmed using time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), and the retention of the sizing agent on fibers was supported by evidence of hydrocarbons on the paper surface. In addition to achieving sufficient water resistance features with MAA, a lesser hydrophobic character was obtained when using MOA. Compared to commercial applications, relatively large amounts of sizing agent were used to obtain a sufficient sizing degree. The MOA required 5% addition to achieve a similar sizing degree as MAA at the 2% level. The sizing treatments also resulted in substantial increases in tensile index value. Since cationic starch was used in the formulation of the sizing agents, the increase in tensile index may have been due to the influence of cationic starch. Contributions to paper strength from a combination of ionic complexation and mutual association of hydrophobic groups is also proposed. Depending on the amount of sizing agent, the yellowness increased, especially when sizing with MOA.

New Releases


Kraft Recovery Boilers, Third Edition  

Sponsored by the Recovery Boiler Program R&D Subcommittee of the American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA) and published by TAPPI Press.



Handbook For Pulp and Paper Technologists (The SMOOK Book), Fourth Edition

The best-selling text to introduce the entire technology of pulp and paper manufacture.



Guidelines for Safe Assessment and Operation of Yankee Dryers  

A project of the Yankee Dryer Safety & Reliability Committee.



Check our newest additions.

TAPPI Press offers some of the most in-depth resources and references for the forest products and related industries. 

See More


Available for Purchase – Conference Proceedings

TAPPI maintains a record of key conference papers, presentations, and other conference publications, available for purchase in a variety of formats.

See More