Effects of rings on flow and temperature in lime kilns, TAPPI Journal June 2022



Application: A lime kiln model has been developed to predict how gas flow and kiln temperatures respond to the presence of ring deposits and may provide insights into how rings form and grow.

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Author: Patrick Gareau; Markus Bussmann; Nikolai DeMartini; and Honghi Tran
Effects of rings on flow and temperature in lime kilns, TAPP
ABSTRACT: A steady state, two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric model has been developed to help understand how rings form and grow in a typical lime kiln. Rings of varying length, thickness, and geometry at the front and back faces were modeled to study the effects on flue gas flow and temperature. The results show that ring growth causes the gas velocity to increase and insulates the adjacent refractory, resulting in a lower kiln shell temperature. The results also reveal the formation of recirculation zones immediately down-stream of the rings, as well as temperature deviations upstream and downstream of the rings that might promote recarbonation and further ring growth. The model was applied to a kiln from a kraft mill with front-end and mid-kiln rings and good agreement was obtained between the measured and predicted kiln shell temperatures, providing confidence in the modeling.
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