Dynamic CFD modeling of calcination in a rotary lime kiln with an external dryer, TAPPI Journal August 2023



Application: The work done in this paper gives insight into the impact that different operating conditions have on the calcination start location. It also provides a model that can assist in controlling the calcination start location during operation to prevent the growth of mid-kiln rings.

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Author: Jarod Ryan, Markus Bussmann, and Nikolai DeMartini
Dynamic CFD modeling of calcination in a rotary lime kiln wi
ABSTRACT: Mid-kiln ring formation is a problem in lime kilns that may be related to fluctuations in the start location of calcination. To calculate fluctuations in bed and gas temperature profiles within a lime kiln with an external dryer, a dynamic two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics (CFD) gas model with a methane burner implemented in ANSYS Fluent, coupled by mass and heat balances to a one-dimensional (1D) bed model, was developed. The dynamic model was used to calculate changes in the location where calcination starts with fluctuations in operational conditions using pulp mill data. This model simulates radiative, convective, and conductive heat transfer between the gas, wall, and bed to determine the axial bed temperature in the kiln. The calcination reaction is described using a shrinking core model that allows for the prediction of the location at which calcination begins and the degree of calcination achieved. The solid motion within the kiln is modeled using Kramer’s equation modified for transient response. Steady-state and dynamic simulation results were compared to data from an industrial dry lime kiln, and good agreement was found. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to provide insight on how operating conditions and model variables impact the calcination location and degree of calcination. Of the variables examined, the fuel rate and the feed temperature had the largest impact on both the calcination location and degree of calcination in the kiln. Model predictions of a period of ring formation in the industrial kiln showed that the start location of calcination fluctuated by more than 2 m on either side of the mean of regular operation, warranting further investigation of the importance of these fluctuations on mid-kiln ring formation.
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