SCC susceptibility of chromized type 409 stainless steel in alkaline chloride solutions at ambient temperature  and pressure, TAPPI Journal August 2023

Application: The reported materials performance results will help guide the selection of engineering alloys from which to construct structural components for hydrothermal liquefaction conversion of biomass to produce bio-oil.

TAPPI conference proceedings and presentations, technical papers, and publication articles provide technical and management data and solutions on topics covering the Pulp, Paper, Tissue, Corrugated Packaging, Flexible Packaging, Nanotechnology and Converting Industries.

Simply select the quantity, add to your cart and your conference paper, presentation or article will be available for immediate download.
Author: Elliott Asare, Joseph Kish, and Yimin Zeng
SCC susceptibility of chromized type 409 stainless steel in
ABSTRACT: Biomass hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is operated in a harsh reaction medium that contains hot pressurized water, inorganic acidic or basic catalyst, and inorganic/organic corrosive components released during the conversion. Candidate alloys for this application require suitable resistance to both corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) to withstand the HTL process conditions (250°C•374°C and 4•22 MPa). Ferritic iron-chromium (Fe-Cr) steels are more prone to corrosion but less susceptible to SCC compared to austenitic iron-chromium-nickel (Fe-Cr-Ni) steels. Chromizing can significantly reduce corrosion of Type 409 stainless steel (Fe-11Cr) in a simulated aqueous HTL solution. The objective of this study is to determine the SCC susceptibility of chromized Type 409 stainless steel, relative to the bare (non-chromized) case. The slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique was used for this purpose. For simplicity of experimentation, SSRT was conducted using simulated HTL water containing 800 ppm potassium chloride (KCl), 1 M potassium carbonate (K2CO3), and 10 wt% acetic acid at ambient temperature and pressure. Complementary potentiodynamic polarization measurements and surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectros-copy (XPS) were also made to help interpret the SSRT results. The SSRT results show no significant difference in SCC susceptibility, regardless of the starting surface. Thus, chromizing, while significantly reducing the corrosion of Type 409 stainless steel, does not adversely affect SCC susceptibility, at least under the conditions tested.

New Releases

TAPPI PRESS Catalog eBook 2024

Experience the Power of Publications in the 2024 TAPPI Press Catalog



Kraft Recovery Boilers, Third Edition  

Sponsored by the Recovery Boiler Program R&D Subcommittee of the American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA) and published by TAPPI Press.



Handbook For Pulp and Paper Technologists (The SMOOK Book), Fourth Edition

The best-selling text to introduce the entire technology of pulp and paper manufacture.



Guidelines for Safe Assessment and Operation of Yankee Dryers  

A project of the Yankee Dryer Safety & Reliability Committee.



Check our newest additions.

TAPPI Press offers some of the most in-depth resources and references for the forest products and related industries. 

See More


Available for Purchase – Conference Proceedings

TAPPI maintains a record of key conference papers, presentations, and other conference publications, available for purchase in a variety of formats.

See More