Z-direction chemical analysis for new application methods, TAPPI Journal January 2023


Application: This method can be used to determine the z-direction distribution of appropriate chemical additives in a sheet.

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Author: Matthew Nicholas, Terry Bliss, and Tiffany Bohnsack
Z-direction chemical analysis for new application methods, T
ABSTRACT: In conventional wet-end chemical addition during paper production, chemical distribution through the z-direction of the sheet is usually not considered an important characteristic. With a nontraditional chemical dosing approach, such as foam-assisted additive addition, the chemistry can appear at different concentrations throughout the sheet, typically in a z-direction gradient. To fully understand the strength properties of the sheet, it is helpful to view or quantify the chemical distribution through the sheet in the z-direction. One qualitative method uses a dye technique along with confocal laser scanning microscopy to generate an image where the relative chemical concentration can be observed. A quantitative method involves compiling nitrogen analyses of layered subsections of the sheet into a composite graph of relative chemical concentration vs. the z-direction of the sheet. Chemical distribution analysis can be paired with traditional z-direction strength tests, such as Scott bond and z-direction tensile, to help one understand and improve the chemical addition process and its effects.

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